Only spouse is heir

(N) No. When there are no brothers and sisters

In this case, it means that there are no heirs of the first and second rank.

Only the spouse will be the heir.

Set out in Civil Law Article 890

The spouse of a decedent shall always be an heir. In this case, if there is a person to become an heir pursuant to the provisions of Article 887 or the preceding Articlethe spouse shall be of the same rank as that  person.

Next, usually you will consider the question of will.

legal Issues of Stock trading in AI era Part3

In stock trading in the AI ​​era (part 2), I mentioned the amendment of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act to respond to specific problems. Here, I will show you an interesting cases before mentioning the detailed content of amendment.

Hokuetsu Kishu Paper Company stock price manipulation case (February 16, 2011 decision).

Market manipulation is prohibited under theFIEA Article 159  section2  (1) .

It set out that

(2) No person shall commit any of the following acts for the purpose of inducing sales and purchase of Securities, Market Transactions of Derivatives or Over-the-Counter Transactions of Derivatives (hereinafter referred to “Sales and Purchase of Securities, etc.” in this Article):

Of course,it may be  an issue about “for the purpose of inducing sales and purchase of Securities” when using the algorithms.But it is the same even if it is a transaction using an algorithm.

You can see the detils of the transaction on the website of the Stock Exchange Oversight Committee (Recommendation).

Basically algoritms are as follows;
Selling order without intent to make a deal
Buy order
Change the limit price to a price which there is no possibility of deal
Change the limit price again near the best quatation value

However, as an interpretation theory, it seems that such “marbles” are being carried out on a daily basis, and if so, the requirement for incentive purposes of “inducing sales and purchase of Securities” It seems to be argued that it will not be satisfied.

In IOSCO’s report, in Recommendation 5, “Market authorities should be monitored for new forms or types of market impediments that technological development can bring, and appropriate measures should be taken if necessary”

Also, in response to the WG report, the amendment of Financial Instruments and Exchange Act was proposed and  passed the National Assembly.

Materials related to this amendment can be accessed from this page(Japanese).

In English,AMT Law Offices’ report may be useful.

The law itself is not only responsive to high-speed transactions, but also includes

(1) introduction of fair / disclosure rules,

(2) development of legislation concerning high-speed transactions (high-speed trading of stocks, HFT) of shares, etc.,

(3) flexibility of the scope of operations of the financial instruments exchange group And so on.

Outlines are set out in the AMT paper.

Specifically, Article 2, para. 41 after the revision of the same law set out

“High frequency trading means the actions as set forth in (i) through (iii) below where the decision making concerning such actions is determined automatically through an electronic information processing system, and the information necessary for the sale/purchase of securities or the market transactions of derivatives5 based on such decision is communicated through information technology to the financial instruments exchange or any other person specified by the Cabinet Office Ordinance, with the methods to be used in order to shorten the time usually required for such communication to be specified in the Cabinet Office Ordinance (except those specified by the Cabinet Order as actions which are considered harmless for the purpose of protection of investors, considering the details of such actions):

(i) Sale/purchase of securities or market transactions of derivatives;

(ii) Entrustment of the actions described in (i); and

(iii) In addition to (ii), actions related to those described in (i) which are specified in the Cabinet Order to be equivalent to those described in (i) and (ii).”

And a registration system for traders who conduct high-speed algorithmic transactions (high-speed trading actors, 42 paragraphs) is introduced (Article 66 ss 50).

Traders are required  to take

(1) measures relating to system development and risk management

(2) measures relating to information provision to the authorities, etc.

(3) other provisions .

(1) measures relating to system development and risk management

System development (Article 66 -55)

As measures related to risk management, Proper management and operation of trading system (57),

appropriate business management system ·

Secure of property basis (58),

establishment of representatives or agents in Japan (in case of foreign corporation)

 (2)  measures relating to information provision to the authorities,

 Report  to authorities about performing high-speed transactions  & transaction strategies.

Create and save transaction records (58)

Regulatory review / inspection / business improvement order etc by the authorities etc. (58, 60, 67)

(3) As other provisions

 Prohibition of brokerage commissioned by a securities company from those who do not register at high speed, etc. Investigation by exchanges for those who conduct high-speed transactions (Article 85-5)

When introducing the WG report,there is criticism that there is a hindrance to price formation focusing on the profitability (original corporate value) of companies from medium- to long-term  view in the stock market where the share of algorithmic high-speed trading accounts for a majority.

In stock trading, there are two methods of trading.The one is “fundamental trading” which focus the profitability  of the company.The other is “technical  trading” which focus on price fluctuations themselves. The popularity of “technical  trading” is  not a problem caused by AI technology because that  existed before algorithmic trading became popular.


Stock trading in AI era Part1

From the discussion such as” Legal issues of online securities business “(“Shinkyo reports 5 (3), 17 – 31, 2001 – 08) , securities transactions have completely changed their appearance for 15 years. it will be one of the most changed fields by networking society.

Online transactions have become generalized and the securities market has become fragmented (a dark pool is developing, which is a place of business where a large number of markets are established and a private trading system is also opened and transaction information that does not disclose sign information is made) . In addition, autonomous algorithmic trading is developing very closely to the majority of the market.

Algorithmic trading can generally be defined as referring to transactions that decide the timing and quantities of stock trading and make orders, according to the program formulated in advance. Among them, the whole transaction made at high speed and high frequency is called high frequency transaction (HFT). Institutional investors and others are conducting such transactions and are beginning to show an extremely large presence in actual securities transactions.

It is said that such high-frequency trading has merits such as efficiency of price finding function and liquidity. On the other hand, it seems to be pointed out that there are various problems. IOSCO’s “Regulatory Issues Raised by the Impact of Technological Changes on Market Integrity and Efficiency” (outline version in Japanese) are risks of market efficiency, risks on market fairness and robustness, We describe risks to market elasticity and stability. Besides these, it is pointed out that issues regarding best execution, narrowing the scope of market participants, program operation by market, regulation cost problems, etc. are pointed out.

By the way, let us consider this algorithm transaction and the current “Stock trading using AI”.

In the first place, AI is a too generic name, it is a concrete technique, and it itself can not be said to lead something productive conclusions. Among my friends, AI is a childhood name and talks about “AI grown up theory” that when AI grown up  in “the formal clothes”, AI will be  given “Grown Up” name such as natural language analysis or image recognition among the university professors, there are many people who surprisingly support.

Aside from that, when discussing with AI in the form of stock trading, I think that it is possible to think that there are two directions. One is to use artificial intelligence to advise customers on asset management and the other is to make it possible to use the results of analysis by artificial intelligence regarding the behavior of securities trading algorithms .

Regarding the former, it is called a so-called robot adviser / service, and its legal issues are also being studied (Hiroyuki Hasegawa “FinTech and its legal issues in the securities field” NBL 1081, page 71 (Commercial Legal Affairs, 2016)).

Regarding the latter, in terms of using analysis results by artificial intelligence, specifically speaking, from the point of view of what artificial intelligence technology I can do it.

As being published in business
Stock price rise prediction system
A system that analyzes time series stock price data by RNN (recurrent neural network)
And others have been announced.

Also, academically,
Application to momentum trading strategy
Application of event-based stock price prediction using natural language analysis
We will be in the category of this AI technology such as.

Let’s examine in detail what kind of thing can be mentioned as a specific legal problem concerning the application of securities trading of such AI technology.